Saturday, May 23, 2020
Marriage in Seventeenth-Century England: The WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s Story Alice BrabcovÃ ¡ University of West Bohemia, PlzeÃ Ë The seventeenth century represents a fascinating period of English history, drawing the attention of whole generations of historians. This turbulent age saw three major events that had a deep impact on EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢ s political as well as social lifeÃ¢â¬âthe English Revolution, the Restoration of the Stuarts in 1660 and the Glorious Revolution in 1688. Amidst the turmoil of the events, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives unfolded. While it was menÃ¢â¬â¢s preoccupation to keep the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political and economic affairs going, women had an indispensable, though far less public, part to play. This paper aims at providing an outline of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Generally speaking, the poorer a girl was, the greater freedom she had in choosing her future husband. But even the children of the poor were expected to ask their parents for their blessing, though money had a small part to play here. There were several criteria which decided whether a match was Ã¢â¬ËappropriateÃ¢â¬â¢. Contemporary moralists recommend that the couple should be of similar age, background, financial circumstances and religious beliefs. Concord in manners and interests was beneficial as well. The husband and wife should like and respect each otherÃ¢â¬âeven love each otherÃ¢â¬âbut they should beware of mere sexual fascination and look for inner qualities. The widespread opinion was that love came after the wedding. An example of such a marriage was the relationship of the Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell with his wife Elizabeth. Though the two people married out of prudence, not love, in the course of time they developed a deep and enduring bond; thus, in one of her letters, Elizabeth writes to her husband, Ã¢â¬ËTruly my life is but half a life in your absenceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Carlyle 1888: 247). The key quality in a woman was an ability to run the household efficiently. This was frequently the chief consideration for a man in his choice of a wife, especially in poorer families. A Ã¢â¬ËhelpmateÃ¢â¬â¢ was a term that the Puritans liked to use when referring to a good wife. Does this mean, however, that romantic love played noShow MoreRelatedThe And Social Perception Of Witches980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor the fifty years preceding this document, England was plagued with political unrest in the ascension of James I, and his belief in the divine right of Kings. His rise to the throne saw him bring the trials and tribulations of witchcraft and witch-hunting from Scotland, and enforce a 1604 prohibition of conjuring magic. The emergence of this pamphlet in 1645 came about in the early years of the English Civil War, a time that saw an increase in the witch-hunts undertaken by self-proclaimed hunterRead MoreGender Roles In Colonial America1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmerican women during the seventeen and eighteenth century. The different regions, Chesapeake and New England, demonstrates how the lives of white women differ from one another. While white women in both regions were free women in society, they still encountered differences in gender roles and wealth. White women in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake struggled most widely with social wealth. Berkin reconstructs a struggle with social wealth with the story of a young girl named Mary. When MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s fatherRead MoreGender Roles During Modern Europe1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswere framed by Christian beliefs, spread though the Bible, the preaching of church authorities, and contemporary religious writings and art. Olwen Hufton in his book, The Prospect Before Her: a History of Women in Western Europe, asserts the creation story of the Bible as the Ã¢â¬Å"foundation text for western European ideas on the essence of womanhood.Ã¢â¬ EveÃ¢â¬â¢s actions characterized womanhood into the modern period: the woman as a temptress or proxy of the De vil, the gossiping and babbling woman, and as theRead More Inconsistent Roles Essay2001 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageslives but religion and economics also played a massive role. These roles however were constantly changing and often contradicting. Since there is numerous factors that contributed to the shaping of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s private and public roles in the seventeenth and eighteenth century it is impossible to categories all colonial woman in one group. Some historians refer to this period as the golden age of women; however, I tend to see this period as oppressive, with only few examples of women exercising social andRead MoreThe Sexuality And Gender Roles3333 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesbeing male or female as expressed by social or cultural distinctions and differences, rather than biological ones. It is vital to gain an understanding of the perceptions of sexuality and gender roles in the seventeenth century and then to analyse them closely throughout the eighteenth century to see how t hey gradually changed. Helping me to respond to the subject I will be considering the vicissitudes of: the rise in pornographic literature, the change in biological acuities, the hardening of genderRead More Comparing Sexuality and Power in Dracula and Buffy the Vampire Slayer1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesits third season, bears little resemblance to the book which started the vampire craze -- Bram Stokers Dracula, published a century earlier. And yet, looks can be deceiving. Although the trendy -- and often skimpy -- clothing and bandied about pop-culture references of Buffy clearly mark the series as a product of a far different culture than that of the Victorian England of Dracula, the underlying tensions of the two texts are far similar than one might think. Beneath the surface differences inRead MoreThe Social Orders Of Europe2392 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesNew England became a new start for the people of Europe who had crossed the Atlantic Ocean. Opportunities blossomed everywhere on e looked; whether it was new items of trade or the entire land itself, waiting to be discovered. However, as people began to settle into their new home, one thing was certain: the social orders of Europe had traveled with them. Women were meant to stay home and men were meant to work. Women had little involvement in the choices made for their well being, and were requiredRead MoreEssay on Gender, Language and Silence in The Tragedy of Mariam2296 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesElizabeths Carys desire to develop a platform from which women can speak, thereby offering a fuller understanding of women as individuals. By examining issues of public and private language, Cary shows her interest in female voices. As an early-17th-century female playwright, Cary was described by the Earl of Clarendon as `a lady of a most masculine understanding, allayed with the passions and infirmities of her own sex. This description could be interpreted as a complement to Cary, although the EarlRead MoreHamlet, B y William Shakespeare2824 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesDuring the time of Shakespeare, women had a limited role within society. Even though a female monarch ruled England, women had no control over their own lives, and females were completely dominated by a patriarchal society. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in Hamlet, written by Shakespeare in 1603 was a perfect example of a female who, despite her own feelings and desires, had to adhere to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s construction of a submissive female. Her love for Hamlet ultimately was the reason for her destruction, because itRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Twelfth Night3153 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesthe social fabric of Renaissance EnglandÃ¢â¬ . While Catherine Belsey and Phyliss Rackin argued first that stage illusion radically subverted the gender division of the Elizabethan world, new historicists like Stephen Greenblatt and Howard have more recently made claims that the Globe operated as a universe in itself, a place where comedy and theatre and b reaking rules was acceptable, and had little to no effect on the diminishing power of women in Renaissance England. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s strongly feminist
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
What Impacts Incarceration of Ã¢â¬Å"Young OffendersÃ¢â¬ in the United States By Cedric Washington (Abstract) This study is to examine the impact of offenders under the ages of 18 becoming incarcerated in United States. In society today there a lot of young children of all races incarcerated throughout America. All around the world there are different classes of people that form a community. Within these communities, population grows and grows on a yearly basis. When looking at the topic of youth offenders, this issue I believe is a direct result of social placement. The environment that a child is brought up in will eventually dictate their path in life. A child that grows up in a household with both parents has a better chance to be successful. This single way of thinking can easily be altered, clearly depending on the child. The question that is being brought to the forefront is what components factor in incarcerated teenagers. Most of the young adults being incarcerated upon release will likely recommit similar crimes in the future. Being in adolescent the human mind is simila r to a sponge when it comes to retaining information. Emotional, physical and visual knowledge opens the door for many different possibilities to be withheld in an individual. As a young adult I believe it is important that youth are actively involved in positive activities. Curricular activities that will help provide a social and mental foundation for them toShow MoreRelatedRehabilitation Programs vs. Incarceration738 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRehabilitation Programs vs. Incarceration 5 Running Head: Rehabilitation Programs vs. Incarceration Impact of Rehabilitation Programs and Incarceration for Juvenile Offenders Discussing the Importance of Rehabilitation Program Introduction Juvenile offenders are increasing day by day regardless of the efforts to control the youth crime. It is important to understand the fact that even though the offenders fall in the young age bracket, they are still a part of human species. Human nature respondsRead MoreIncarceration Of Youth And Its Effects On Reducing Crime Essay1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIncarceration of Youth The United States leads the world in the incarceration of young people, there are over 100,000 youth placed in jail each year. Locking up youth has shown very little positive impact on reducing crime. Incarcerating youth have posed greater problems such as expenses, limited education, lack of employment, and effect on juvenilesÃ¢â¬â¢ mental and physical well-being. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society there has been an increase in the crimes committed by juveniles. Most juveniles have underliningRead MoreEssay about Reccomendations for Preventing Crime in Queensland932 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTopic 4: Felton (1997) argues Future crime policies are likely to turn away from incarceration and towards prevention. Using your understanding of criminology and the reasons why people commit crime; provide a recommendation on what action you think the government should take to prevent crime in Queensland. Speculation has been raised about whether incarceration is effective for criminal offenders. When an offender goes against the law, it has been argued that they must take a social debt. ThereforeRead MoreCorrections : The Controversies Of Offenders901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunity Corrections: The Controversies of Offenders Sentenced to Probation or Parole When the English common law emerged, it declared that the King had the ultimate authority over children, and; thus, children were assets. Throughout centuries, children were considered Ã¢â¬Å"little adults,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"property,Ã¢â¬ consequently, exploitation of children as laborers was a customary occurrence. Families who were in severe poverty saw child labor as a necessity (Davin, 2008). During colonial times, children wereRead MoreA More Punitive Justice System1092 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfor the offenders to live in. The purpose of prisons should be to rehabilitate offenders and prepare them to reenter society. Rather, what prions are doing is locking inmates away in atrocious environments, making them live with less resources and less space to function. This is not a suitable environment for any human being. Cook Roesh (2012) contend that, Ã¢â¬Å"double-bunking inmates increased because of overcrowding, and there are more segregation-like units which have limited offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ access toRead MoreHow Effective Is The Youth Justice System Essay1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction How effective is the Youth Justice System in responding to youth crime? Since the arrival of the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) came into effect, the crime rates have decreased. Previously Canada had one of the highest youth incarceration rates in the western world. However since the Youth Criminal Justice Act got put into place in 2003, the crime rates have declined significantly. The Youth Justice System does their best to better and rehabilitate the adolescents that get intoRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency : Should Severity Of Punishment For Young Offenders Be The Same As Adults?1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJuvenile Delinquency: Should Severity of Punishment for Young Offenders Be the Same as Adults? Throughout centuries of development, crime and social safety are still the biggest concerns for a country since it can influence the political, economic, and social aspects. With the evolution of human civilization, more than seventy percent of the world has been urbanized into developed countries. These countries contain advanced technologies, highly-comprehensive policies and economic system. Along withRead MorePrison Overcrowding : The United States1535 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStates has the highest number of incarcerated individuals than other countries. Offenders are arrested every day for minor and major offences such as murder. America is hard on crime. When someone breaks the law the criminal justiceÃ¢â¬â¢s system seeks an eye for an eye. Prison overcrowding has become a major problem in the United States, it is very expensive to house an inmate and there are other methods to punish offenders without sending them to prison for extended periods of time. The American criminalRe ad MoreCompeting Theories of Corrections1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin the office a state senator, I have been asked to prepare a detailed outline on correctional theory in general and then make a series of suggestions on ways to implement some of the nontraditional theories of corrections. In reviewing mass incarceration there is often criticism of simple warehousing of human beings who are convicted of crimes. If it is a violent crime there is a need to safeguard society from future criminal acts of a person who is convicted of the most heinous offenses. I willRead MoreThe High Incarceration Rate Of Juveniles1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe high incarceration rate of juveniles is a significant social problem that affects society as a whole as well as the youthÃ¢â¬â¢s individual welfare and developmental trajectory. Adolescents who are incarcerated in the juvenile justice system face a multitude of negative lifelong implications. The history of incarcerating youth in residential fa cilities such as juvenile halls, camps, ranches or group homes as a consequence for committing crimes has a deep-rooted history in the United States. Ã¢â¬Å"For more
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The relevant statutes and cases 5 How the current legislations adequately 6 protect the consumers References 7 QUESTION: Analyse with relevant statutes and cases the problems with electronic banking and how the current legislations adequately protect the consumers overcoming these problems. ANSWER: The following are the problems with e-banking: 1. Time of payment:The opportunity for a customer to countermand or stop electronic payment is unclear. We will write a custom essay sample on Problems with E-Banking or any similar topic only for you Order Now If the transfer is effective before the countermand is received, then the paying institution will have paid in accord with its mandate and is not liable to reverse or restore payment to the customer. Cheques are only paid or effective once cleared, and the paying bank holds records of the appropriate debit, however with EFT there are 5 possible times of payment: a. The time of transmission. b. The entering of the transfer instruction into the transfer system. c. The time of receipt of the transfer instruction by the paying institution. . The time when the recipient financial institution decides to accept the payment. e. The time when the recipient financial institution credits the sum to the account of its customer. 2. Malfunctions: ADIs accept liability for direct loss if there is a malfunction in the system. In the case where an electronic malfunction resulted in non-payment of an amount of money due under a charter party agreement, such that one of the parties lost the benefit of a ship charter, resulting in the loss of millions of dollars, it may result to indirect or consequential loss.The Uniform Commercial Code, in the USA, prohibits recovery of consequential damages from a recipient bank for a delayed or otherwise mishandled funds transfer unless there is express written agreement permitting recovery between the bank and its customer. 3. Evidence of transactions: EFT transactions are usually evidenced at the point of transaction by a document proffered to the customer. The problem arises with the unauthorized or fraudulent use of the facility, this will result to the customer not discovering the unauthorized use until there is a periodic statement issued. . Security, fraud and liability: In accordance with cheques and bills, a customer is not ordinarily liable for losing a bill, cheque or cheque book or failing to check bank statements for inaccuracies; the duties owed by the customer to a bank are quite limited in scope. However in the case of debit and credit cards, the duties are quite different. The customer is under greater contractual duties regarding security and liability for fraud. He must keep the card in a safe place and is required to notify the bank immediately of its loss or theft. 5. Terms of contract:The terms of e-banking account are set by the ADI and are varied upon notice from time to time. Customers have little bargaining power and also problems with understanding the contractual obligations. To further illustrate this point, there is usually a Ã¢â¬Å"Conditions of UseÃ¢â¬ document supplied with a debit or credit card but rarely is it understood, and as soon as the customer signs the card or first uses it, they are deemed to have accepted the card on these conditions. The relevant statutes and cases illustrating the problems with electronic banking: 1.ANZ vs Westpac (1988) 164 CLR 662, A meat company (Jakes) had an account with the branch of the Westpac Bank. At the relevant time the account was overdrawn in the amount of $67,000. A customer presented to ANZ a cheque in favour of Jakes for $14,000, but, by reason of clerial error, ANZ credited Jakes account with Westpac for $114,000. By the time ANZ notified Westpac for the error, Westpac had applied the money in reducing the overdraft and in honouring a number of JakesÃ¢â¬â¢s cheques. Jakes paid back only $2,500 of the $100,000 before going into liquidation.ANZ brought an action against Westpac to recover the overpayment, however Westpac sought to rely on the defence of ministerial receipt. Bth parties acted on the basis of concessions made by Westpac that the reduction of the overdraft anad the payment of certain cheques which could have been dishonoured by Westpac at the time was notified of the mistake should be ignored for the purposes of determining whether the moneys had been applied. As a result of the concessions it was accepted by Westpac that it had not applied $17,021 of the payment and that it was liable to return this amount. . Mercedes Benz v ANZ and National Mutual Royal Savings Bank Ltd (Part 2), Mrs R was employed by the plaintiff as a payroll supervisor. By arrangement with the second defendant, she was given forms for opening accounts for new employees of the plaintiff, and she received cards and PINs for accessing those accounts. The plaintiff paid wages and commissions by issuing a cheque in favour of NMRB who then credited the appropriate accounts. There was virtually no supervision of Mrs R after her appointment, nor did the second defendant ever question the creation of accounts.Mrs R defrauded the plaintiff company using several different schemes. For the purposes of the present note, the relevant scheme was to create accounts in fictitious names and then use those accounts for the deposit of cheques. How the current legislations adequately protect the consumers: To address these problems, a joint State and Federal Committee of Consumer Affairs Ministers prepared a Code of Conduct to be allowed by financial institutions. They were given some time to incorporate the Code into their standard EFT contracts or alternatively face l egislation. After amendments recommended by the Trade Practices Commission in 1989, the Code was implemented along with the Australian Banking Ombudsman Scheme. The current Code is now part of ASICÃ¢â¬â¢s scope of administration.REFERENCES: 1. Restitution law: By Sharon Erbacher pg. 639 2. Law 330 module 2 pg. 30-32 3. Cases and materials on the law of restitution:Ã By Andrew Burrows, Ewan McKendrick, James Edelman pg. 838 4. http://austlii. edu.au/~alan/mb2. html, Mercedes Benz v ANZ and National Mutual Royal Savings Bank Ltd (Part 2), accessed on 20/08/10. How to cite Problems with E-Banking, Papers
Friday, May 1, 2020
PHILOCTETES Essay Paper A monologue from the play by Sophocles NOTE: This monologue is reprinted from Dramas. Sophocles. London: J.M. Dent Sons, 1906. PHILOCTETES: O what a drudge and sport of Gods am I!Of whose ill plight no whisper ever cameTo my own home, or any coast of Greece,But they who thrust me out unrighteouslyLaugh and keep silence, while my sickness everGrows on me and increases more and more.O boy! O son, calling Achilles sire,I am the man who, may be, thou hast heardWas master of the arms of Heracles,The son of P?as, Philoctetes! whomThe Captains twain and the Cephallenite kingCast out thus shamefullydesertedsickOf a consuming woundpierced through and throughBy the destroying vipers venomous fangs;And in this plight, boy, they exposed me here,Left me, and went! when from the Chrysean coastThey put in hither with their navy, straight,Soon as they saw me sleeping on the beach,Tired with long tossing, in a sheltered cave,They laughed, they went, they left me! casting meA few mean rags, a beggars garniture,And some poor pittance, too, of nourishment,Such as, I pray, be theirs! O then, my son,What sort of waking, think you , from that sleepHad I when they were gone! How did I weep,How did I wail, for my calamities!Seeing the ships which I was leader ofAll gone away, and no man in the placeWho should suffice me, or should comfort meIn the disease of which I laboured; yeaThough I sought everywhere, nothing I foundLeft to me, save my anguish; and, my son,Of that no lack indeed! Hour after hourPassed by me; and I must needs make shift alone,Under this scanty shelter. For my food,This quiver sought out what supplied my need,Hitting the doves on wing; then to the markOf the shot bolt I had to crawl, with pain,Dragging a wounded foot. If upon thisI wanted to get anything to drink,Or, as in winter when the hoar frost lay,To break some sticks to burn, this, creeping forth,I had to manage, in my misery.Ther there would be no fire; but striking hardWith flint on flint I struck out painfullyAn obscure spark, which keeps me still alive.Thus shelter overhead, not without fire,Furnishes all, save healing of my sore. Come now and hear about the isle, my son;No sailor willingly approaches it;For anchorage there is not, or a portWhither a man might sail, and make his martBy traffic, or find welcome; prudent menDo not make voyage here. Some one, perhaps,Might land against his will; for these things oftWill happen in the long-drawn life of men;But such, my son, when they do come, in wordsPity me, and in compassion give me, saySome morsel of food, or matter of attire;But that thing no man, when I hint it, will doTake me safe home; but this tenth year alreadyIn hunger and distress I pine and perish,Feeding the gnawing tooth of my disease.The Atrid?, and Ulysses violence,Have done me all this wrong; the like of which,O boy, may the Olympian Gods give themOne day to suffer, in revenge for me!
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Thursday, March 5, 2020
How to Earn Computer Certifications Online Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to broaden the number of companies you can apply to, or simply would like to learn a new skill, there are many options for technology certification and training online. While most credible certification processes require you to take the exam at an authorized testing location, almost all of them do permit you to do all training and preparation work via the internet.When seeking certification, keep in mind that not all types of certification require applicants to complete online training programs. In many cases, certification can be awarded simply by passing an exam. Most certification providers provide training and test prep, but they often charge additional fees to access it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s generally best to check the providerÃ¢â¬â¢s website for information on the certification first to get a good feel for what preparation is required and what youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need help with. Once you decide that the certification is right for you, note the cost to take the exam, and whether the certification provider offers any online assistance free of charge. Fortunately, there are some excellent resources for preparing for certification online that are available free of charge.Some of the more common certification types include: CompTIA A, Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), Cisco Certification (CCNA CCNP), Microsoft Office Specialist (MOS), and the Certified Novell Engineer (CNE). CompTIA A Certification Employers often ask that those looking for IT type position carry some form of certification. For those looking to work with computer hardware, one of the most common certification sought is Comptia A. The A certification demonstrates that you possess the basic foundation of knowledge necessary to provide IT support and is often considered a good jumping off point for those looking to have a career working with computers. Information on the exam and links to online preparation options are available at Comptia.org. Free test prep can be obtained from ProfessorMesser.com. Microsoft Certified System Engineer The MCSE is a good certification to get if youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for employment with a business that uses Microsoft networked systems. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s good for those with a year or two of experience with networks and some familiarity with Windows systems. Information on the certification,Ã as wellÃ as testing locations, is provided at the Microsoft website. Free preparation for the exam as well as training material can be found at mcmcse.com. Cisco Certification Cisco certification, particularly the CCNA, is highly valued by employers with large networks. Those looking for a career working with computer networks, network security, and internet service providers will be well served by Cisco certification. Information on certification can be found at Cisco.com. Free study guides and tools can be found at Semsim.com. Microsoft Office Specialist Certification Those looking to work with Microsoft office products such as Excel or PowerPoint will be well served with an MOS certification. While not often specifically requested by employers, an MOS certification is a strong way of demonstrating ones aptitude with a specific Microsoft application. They are also less intense to prepare for than some of the other common certifications. Information from Microsoft on this is available. Free test preparation can be difficult to find, but some practice tests are available for free at Techulator.com. Certified Novell Engineer The CNE is ideal for those looking to, or currently working with Novell software such as Netware. As Novell products seem less used today than they once were, this certification is probably ideal only if you already plan to work with Novell networks. Information on the certification can be found at Novell.com. A directory of free preparation materials can be found at Certification-Crazy.net.Whatever certification you choose to pursue, be sure to review the preparation requirements and costs. Some of the most difficult certification types can take many months to prepare for, so be sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re able to invest the time and resources necessary to get certified. If your virtual certification efforts go well, you may also be interested in earning an online degree.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Course reveiw - Coursework Example The three objectives are, to increase brand loyalty, this targets customerÃ¢â¬â¢s interests in the produced product, and can increase customerÃ¢â¬â¢s reliability where they are able to purchase the same product over and over. For branding to be successful, it must assist in promotion, by conducting adverts, personal selling, this works like sales and marketing, they are all done by the use of the brand name. The two mentioned objectives help increase status and prestige of the producer, distributors to the customers and this flourishes the business. Introduction StageÃ Ã¢â¬â a company or business comes up with ways of attracting customers either through adverts or sales and must be committed so as to outdo their competitors. Growth StageÃ Ã¢â¬â this stage targets expansion of sales and pricing with an aim of making profits, with time, the businesses invest more money in the promotion activities to increase the potential of this stage. Maturity StageÃ Ã¢â¬âthis is the most competitive time for most products and businesses need to invest in any marketing they undertake. There is need to consider any product modifications or improvements to the production process that might give bring a competitive advantage. Decline StageÃ Ã¢â¬â this stage is inevitable to any type of business and reflects shrinking due to the market becoming saturated or because the consumers are changing to different types of products, but it is possible that companies will make profits by lowering their prices (Mohr, Sengupta & Slater, 2010 ). Bundle pricing common in supermarkets, where promotions are given, if one buys something, they are given another for free. Competition pricing some firms offers a price services that resembles service to what their competitors are offering so as to beat the competition in terms of customers. Skimming pricing a company tends to reduce the price for over 5 years,